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PET Scan In Neurology

Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scan

Positron emission tomography (PET) scans provide two- and three-dimensional pictures of brain activity by measuring radioactive isotopes that are injected into the bloodstream. PET scans of the brain are used to detect or highlight tumors and diseased tissue, measure cellular and/or tissue metabolism, show blood flow, evaluate patients who have seizure disorders that do not respond to medical therapy and patients with certain memory disorders, and determine brain changes following injury or drug abuse, among other uses.
PET may be ordered as a follow-up to a CT or MRI scan to give the physician a greater understanding of specific areas of the brain that may be involved with certain problems.  Scans are conducted in a hospital or at a testing facility, on an outpatient basis. A low-level radioactive isotope, which binds to chemicals that flow to the brain, is injected into the bloodstream and can be traced as the brain performs different functions…

Behavioural Techniques | Memory Reconsolidation

Visual perceptual skills are updated by the process similar to memory reconsolidation.
New research concludes that humans’ ability to identify and categorize what they see is kept up-to-date by reactivating lessons learned and allowing them to become stable over time.
A new study shows that updating visual perceptual skills — which humans rely on to recognize what they see, including potential threats, and ignore unimportant background — is an active process with many similarities to the way they stabilize memories.
Published in Nature Human Behavior, the study led by Brown University researchers tested whether memory reconsolidation, observed in animals, occurs in humans and whether it impacts skill learning.
In animals, when a new memory is formed, that memory is fragile until time passes and the memory is consolidated. When memories are recalled or reactivated, they become temporarily unstable and vulnerable to change until they become stable again, shortly afterward.
Using behavioral

Levels of Dopamine | Parkinsons Disease | Towards A Better Tomorrow | Neurology 2018

Levels of Dopamine | Parkinsons Disease | Towards A Better Tomorrow | Neurology 2018  
Arvid Carlsson, the Swedish neuroscientist and Nobel laureate, died on June 29, 2018 at the age of 95. He had devoted his life to understanding how the brain works and was awarded the Nobel for his research into dopamine – an important chemical found in the brain.
So what is dopamine, and why did finding out about it merit the Nobel Prize? Dopamine is a simple chemical, made in the body from an amino acid called tyrosine. Despite its simplicity, it plays an important role as a neurotransmitter – chemicals that brain cells use to communicate with one another.
Dopamine: Methods and Protocols
What Carlsson did was to reveal exactly how significant dopamine is to the function of the brain. Before his research, most people thought that dopamine was just a precursor of a brain hormone called noradrenaline. By decreasing dopamine levels in the brains of rabbits in his lab in Gothenburg, Carlsson was able to sho…

High Blood Pressure | Neuro-Cognition | Communication | Neurons | Neurology2018

Scientists explore how high blood pressure hurts cognition
Researchers report impairments in the neuroprotective communication between neural blood vessels, astrocytes and neurons may be an early factor in how high blood pressure may impair cognitive function.
The squeeze high blood pressure puts on fragile blood vessels in the brain appears to disrupt a normal, protective process that balances the blood flowing to our brains with the activity of our resting neurons.
In the face of hypertension, as blood flow decreases, neuron-nurturing brain cells called astrocytes may instead tell neurons to increase their activity
These impairments in the neuroprotective communication between brain blood vessels, astrocytes and neurons may be an early factor in how hypertension impairs cognitive function.
Neurons don’t have energy reserves, so their activity is dependent on continuous blood flow.
Untreated hypertension can lead to cognitive impairment but exactly how it happens, we don’t really know. We …

Recent Advancements | Research | Quantum Dots | Parkinson's & Alzheimer's | Neurology 2018

Quantum Dots | Reduced Symptoms | Parkinsons Disease & Alzheimer's | Research Areas  
Tiny particles called quantum dots reduce symptoms in mice primed to develop a type of Parkinson’s disease and also block the formation of the toxic protein clumps in Alzheimer’s. They could one day be a novel treatment for these brain disorders, although tests in people are some years away. Quantum dots are just a few nanometres in size – so small they become subject to some of the strange effects of quantum physics. They have useful electronic and fluorescent properties and are found in some TV screens and LED lights.
Unlike most medicines, their tiny size means they can pass from the bloodstream into the brain. Byung Hee Hong of Seoul National University in South Korea and his colleagues wondered if they would affect the molecules involved in Parkinson’s or other brain disorders.
Parkinson’s disease involves gradually worsening tremors and movement problems. It is thought to be caused by a pro…

Neurotransmitter | Noradrenaline | Sensory Perceptions | Brain | Neurology 2018 | Berlin

Neurotransmitter | Noradrenaline | Sensory Perceptions | Brain | Neurology2018 | Berlin 
A new study reveals noradrenaline plays a vital role in early stages of perception. Researchers report later processing of visual information occurs in the cerebral cortex and is affected by noradrenaline to determine if an image will enter our stream of consciousness.

A new study published in Current Biology suggests that noradrenaline, a neurotransmitter responsible for arousal in the brain, plays a vital role in our early sensory perceptions of the world.
Until now, medical science believed that noradrenaline is involved in alertness, stress, attention and decision making, says senior author Dr. Yuval Nir, of TAU’s Sackler Faculty of Medicine and Sagol School of Neuroscience. Our study shows that, in fact, noradrenaline plays a vital role in earlier stages of perception, determining our ability to perceive events around us.
The research was jointly led by Dr. Hagar Gelbard-Sagiv and Efrat Magido…

Nomenclature | Genetic Movement Disorders | Neurology 2018 | Neurology Conference 2018

A new nomenclature for genetic movement disorders.
A Task Force was created by the International Parkinson and Movement Disorders Society with the aim of analysing apparent problems and providing solutions regarding the current nomenclature of genetic movement disorders.
Their suggestions have been published,
1.Aim to tackle several drawbacks of the current locus assignment system, such as 1) the inability to distinguish disease-causing mutations from genetic risk factors, 2) inconsistent associations with phenotype, 3) failure to assign a locus symbol in some established movement disorders, 4) more than one symbol being assigned for the same disorder, 5) unconfirmed genotype-phenotype associations, 6) erroneous labels and 7) symbol designation in the absence of known locus or gene.
The proposed nomenclature suggests that a disorder should be listed only if the causative gene is already known (i.e. genetic testing is possible), and appropriate prefixes should be assigned according to…

Obesity | Overweight | Condition After Brain Injury | Neurology 2018

Obesity and overweight linked to long-term health problems after traumatic brain injury High Body Weight Linked to Health Problems after Acute Rehabilitation for TBI The study included 7,287 adults with TBI who had undergone inpatient acute rehabilitation. Inpatient rehabilitation consists of intensive therapy, provided by a team of specialists, designed to improve physical and mental functioning. Care was provided by rehabilitation centers participating in the the Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems (TBIMS) program, sponsored by the National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research.
About three-fourths of patients were men; the average age was 46 years. The relationship between body weight and functional and health outcomes was assessed from one to 25 years after TBI. At the most recent follow-up, 23 percent of TBI survivors were classified as obese, 36 percent as overweight, 39 percent as normal weight, and three percent as underweight.
Overweight and ob…

Influential Speakers | Talks | Neurology 2018 | Neurology Conference 2018 | Berlin | Germany

Influential Speakers | Talks |  Neurology 2018 | Neurology Conference 2018 | Berlin | Germany4th International Conference on Neurology & Health Care#Theme: Broader Outlook in the Field of Neurology and Health CareDate: #September 17-18, 2018 Conference Venue: #Berlin, Germany

Depression | Brain Stimulation | ECT | Neurology2018| Neurology Conference 2018

Depression | Brain Stimulation | ECT | Neurology2018 | Neurology Conference 2018
Researchers report both those who received voluntary and involuntary electroconvulsive therapy reported their symptoms were much improved following treatment.
The findings, which have just been published in the July issue of the journal Brain Stimulation, are based on the largest study of its kind internationally and one of very few studies to report on people requiring involuntary treatment, who are rarely able to take part in clinical research. The results provide reassurance for people who have had involuntary ECT, their families and healthcare providers, according to Professor of Psychiatry Declan McLoughlin from Trinity’s Department of Psychiatry and Trinity Institute of Neuroscience.
The study found that people who have involuntary ECT were more severely unwell before treatment than those having voluntary ECT and were more likely to have psychotic symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions, and h…

Neurology Conference | Parkinson's disease | Intestine | Research Topics | Neurology 2018 | Call For Papers |

Parkinson's disease |  Intestine | Research Topics  | Neurology 2018 

When we think of Parkinson's disease we typically associate it with its motor complications (difficulty initiating movement, stiffness, tremor, instability in posture). These symptoms are caused by the death of dopamine-producing neurons, located in a region of the brain called the substantia nigra. The gradual death of these neurons occurs over the course of several years. When patients have movement difficulties, it is estimated that more than 60% of their dopaminergic neurons have been irreversibly affected.
In the early stages of the disease, other types of complications have been observed, including constipation and gastrointestinal disorders. Constipation is one of the most common non-motor symptoms of the disease. It was documented for more than 200 years by James Parkinson in the first report of the disease. In 2010, researchers from the National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery in Mexico City r…