Levels of Dopamine | Parkinsons Disease | Towards A Better Tomorrow | Neurology 2018

Levels of Dopamine | Parkinsons Disease | Towards A Better Tomorrow | Neurology 2018  
Arvid Carlsson, the Swedish neuroscientist and Nobel laureate, died on June 29, 2018 at the age of 95. He had devoted his life to understanding how the brain works and was awarded the Nobel for his research into dopamine – an important chemical found in the brain.
So what is dopamine, and why did finding out about it merit the Nobel Prize? Dopamine is a simple chemical, made in the body from an amino acid called tyrosine. Despite its simplicity, it plays an important role as a neurotransmitter – chemicals that brain cells use to communicate with one another.
Dopamine: Methods and Protocols
What Carlsson did was to reveal exactly how significant dopamine is to the function of the brain. Before his research, most people thought that dopamine was just a precursor of a brain hormone called noradrenaline. By decreasing dopamine levels in the brains of rabbits in his lab in Gothenburg, Carlsson was able to sho…

High Blood Pressure | Neuro-Cognition | Communication | Neurons | Neurology2018

Scientists explore how high blood pressure hurts cognition
Researchers report impairments in the neuroprotective communication between neural blood vessels, astrocytes and neurons may be an early factor in how high blood pressure may impair cognitive function.
The squeeze high blood pressure puts on fragile blood vessels in the brain appears to disrupt a normal, protective process that balances the blood flowing to our brains with the activity of our resting neurons.
In the face of hypertension, as blood flow decreases, neuron-nurturing brain cells called astrocytes may instead tell neurons to increase their activity
These impairments in the neuroprotective communication between brain blood vessels, astrocytes and neurons may be an early factor in how hypertension impairs cognitive function.
Neurons don’t have energy reserves, so their activity is dependent on continuous blood flow.
Untreated hypertension can lead to cognitive impairment but exactly how it happens, we don’t really know. We …

Recent Advancements | Research | Quantum Dots | Parkinson's & Alzheimer's | Neurology 2018

Quantum Dots | Reduced Symptoms | Parkinsons Disease & Alzheimer's | Research Areas  
Tiny particles called quantum dots reduce symptoms in mice primed to develop a type of Parkinson’s disease and also block the formation of the toxic protein clumps in Alzheimer’s. They could one day be a novel treatment for these brain disorders, although tests in people are some years away. Quantum dots are just a few nanometres in size – so small they become subject to some of the strange effects of quantum physics. They have useful electronic and fluorescent properties and are found in some TV screens and LED lights.
Unlike most medicines, their tiny size means they can pass from the bloodstream into the brain. Byung Hee Hong of Seoul National University in South Korea and his colleagues wondered if they would affect the molecules involved in Parkinson’s or other brain disorders.
Parkinson’s disease involves gradually worsening tremors and movement problems. It is thought to be caused by a pro…

Neurotransmitter | Noradrenaline | Sensory Perceptions | Brain | Neurology 2018 | Berlin

Neurotransmitter | Noradrenaline | Sensory Perceptions | Brain | Neurology2018 | Berlin 
A new study reveals noradrenaline plays a vital role in early stages of perception. Researchers report later processing of visual information occurs in the cerebral cortex and is affected by noradrenaline to determine if an image will enter our stream of consciousness.

A new study published in Current Biology suggests that noradrenaline, a neurotransmitter responsible for arousal in the brain, plays a vital role in our early sensory perceptions of the world.
Until now, medical science believed that noradrenaline is involved in alertness, stress, attention and decision making, says senior author Dr. Yuval Nir, of TAU’s Sackler Faculty of Medicine and Sagol School of Neuroscience. Our study shows that, in fact, noradrenaline plays a vital role in earlier stages of perception, determining our ability to perceive events around us.
The research was jointly led by Dr. Hagar Gelbard-Sagiv and Efrat Magido…

Nomenclature | Genetic Movement Disorders | Neurology 2018 | Neurology Conference 2018

A new nomenclature for genetic movement disorders.
A Task Force was created by the International Parkinson and Movement Disorders Society with the aim of analysing apparent problems and providing solutions regarding the current nomenclature of genetic movement disorders.
Their suggestions have been published,
1.Aim to tackle several drawbacks of the current locus assignment system, such as 1) the inability to distinguish disease-causing mutations from genetic risk factors, 2) inconsistent associations with phenotype, 3) failure to assign a locus symbol in some established movement disorders, 4) more than one symbol being assigned for the same disorder, 5) unconfirmed genotype-phenotype associations, 6) erroneous labels and 7) symbol designation in the absence of known locus or gene.
The proposed nomenclature suggests that a disorder should be listed only if the causative gene is already known (i.e. genetic testing is possible), and appropriate prefixes should be assigned according to…

Obesity | Overweight | Condition After Brain Injury | Neurology 2018

Obesity and overweight linked to long-term health problems after traumatic brain injury High Body Weight Linked to Health Problems after Acute Rehabilitation for TBI The study included 7,287 adults with TBI who had undergone inpatient acute rehabilitation. Inpatient rehabilitation consists of intensive therapy, provided by a team of specialists, designed to improve physical and mental functioning. Care was provided by rehabilitation centers participating in the the Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems (TBIMS) program, sponsored by the National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research.
About three-fourths of patients were men; the average age was 46 years. The relationship between body weight and functional and health outcomes was assessed from one to 25 years after TBI. At the most recent follow-up, 23 percent of TBI survivors were classified as obese, 36 percent as overweight, 39 percent as normal weight, and three percent as underweight.
Overweight and ob…

Influential Speakers | Talks | Neurology 2018 | Neurology Conference 2018 | Berlin | Germany

Influential Speakers | Talks |  Neurology 2018 | Neurology Conference 2018 | Berlin | Germany4th International Conference on Neurology & Health Care#Theme: Broader Outlook in the Field of Neurology and Health CareDate: #September 17-18, 2018 Conference Venue: #Berlin, Germany

Depression | Brain Stimulation | ECT | Neurology2018| Neurology Conference 2018

Depression | Brain Stimulation | ECT | Neurology2018 | Neurology Conference 2018
Researchers report both those who received voluntary and involuntary electroconvulsive therapy reported their symptoms were much improved following treatment.
The findings, which have just been published in the July issue of the journal Brain Stimulation, are based on the largest study of its kind internationally and one of very few studies to report on people requiring involuntary treatment, who are rarely able to take part in clinical research. The results provide reassurance for people who have had involuntary ECT, their families and healthcare providers, according to Professor of Psychiatry Declan McLoughlin from Trinity’s Department of Psychiatry and Trinity Institute of Neuroscience.
The study found that people who have involuntary ECT were more severely unwell before treatment than those having voluntary ECT and were more likely to have psychotic symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions, and h…

Neurology Conference | Parkinson's disease | Intestine | Research Topics | Neurology 2018 | Call For Papers |

Parkinson's disease |  Intestine | Research Topics  | Neurology 2018 

When we think of Parkinson's disease we typically associate it with its motor complications (difficulty initiating movement, stiffness, tremor, instability in posture). These symptoms are caused by the death of dopamine-producing neurons, located in a region of the brain called the substantia nigra. The gradual death of these neurons occurs over the course of several years. When patients have movement difficulties, it is estimated that more than 60% of their dopaminergic neurons have been irreversibly affected.
In the early stages of the disease, other types of complications have been observed, including constipation and gastrointestinal disorders. Constipation is one of the most common non-motor symptoms of the disease. It was documented for more than 200 years by James Parkinson in the first report of the disease. In 2010, researchers from the National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery in Mexico City r…

Neuro Cardiology | Neurology2018 | Brain-Heart | Neurology Conference 2018

Neuro Cardiology | Neurology2018 | Brain-Heart | Neurology Conference 2018 
Neuro-cardiology refers to the pathophysiological interplays of the nervous and cardiovascular systems. The constant communication between the heart and the brain have proved invaluable to interdisciplinary fields ofneurological and cardiac diseases. 
The interaction between heart and brain becomes increasingly important as the underlying mutual mechanisms become better understood. The speciality that deals with the brain-heart connection has become known as neurocardiology. 
Over the past years, there is increasing evidence about the brain-heart interaction with major potential implications for treatment of cardiovascular diseases. For instance, cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs) and transient ischaemic attacks (TIAs) are frequently caused by cardiac arrhythmias and/or congestive heart failure.
Even in the absence of manifest stroke, atrial fibrillation is a risk factor for cognitive impairment and hippocampal atro…

Neurology 2018 | Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) | Neurology Conference 2018 | Mental Imaginary |

Neurological Basis | Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) | Neurology Conference 2018 | Mental Imaginary 
A team led by UNSW Associate Professor Joel Pearson has launched a crowd-funding campaign to raise money to carry out functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies to try and understand the neurological basis of mental imagery. People with and without congential aphantasia – which has only recently been recognised as a new condition – will participate. The findings could also have implications for common mental disorders such as schizophrenia and Parkinson’s disease, which are associated with disturbed mental imagery. “Close your eyes and imagine a green apple floating in front of you,” says Associate Professor Pearson, of the School of Psychology at UNSW Science. “It may be that people with aphantasia are not able to activate these patterns enough to see mental images, or they may use a completely different network of brain activity to imagine.” “The small number of…

Neuroscience | Neurology Conference 2018 | Submit Your Abstracts | CME Conference

Scientists Discover How Brain Signals Travel to Drive Language Performance
Submit your Abstractshere 
Effective verbal communication depends on one’s ability to retrieve and select the appropriate words to convey an intended meaning. For many, this process is instinctive, but for someone who has suffered a stroke or another type of brain damage, communicating even the most basic message can be arduous.
Scientists know that a brain region called the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) is critical for language production and word processing. However, it remains unclear how exactly the LIFG interacts with the brain’s complex networks to facilitate controlled language performance — or how these interactions might go awry in a damaged brain.
Using a magnetic brain stimulation technique — the same method sometimes used to treat depressive symptoms — and network control theory, researchers at Drexel University and the University of Pennsylvania have taken a novel approach to understanding how net…